Dermatology is the medical study of the skin hair and nails. It involves diagnosis and treatment of diseases and problems of hair and nails. Dermatology includes complicated cancers as well as normal cosmetic problems and ageing conditions of the skin, hair, nails, fat, as well as oral and genital membranes.
As per research, during a lifespan, a human being gets affected by one or the other skin problem or disease and hence, would need to visit a dermatologist. A dermatologist is a medical specialist who diagnoses and treats various conditions of the skin, as well as hair, nails and mucous membrane disorders.
Skin is the largest organ of the body and also the first line of defence against bacteria, viruses and injury. The skin is a reflection of the body’s overall health. There are numerous skin problems and diseases that can affect the human body which is diagnosed and treated via dermatology.
Some of the common diseases of dermatology include:
Seborrheic Dermatitis: This condition is characterized by greasy and scaly patches of skin that appear on the skin of babies mostly the scalp. However, this condition is usually harmless and tends to go away with simple dermatology medications. Though in adults, the problem can take a more intense form and appear as red, swollen and greasy patches that have a yellowish crust on top.
Moles: Moles are caused when the skin cells merge accumulate with the surrounding tissues. These are very common and often harmless unless they begin to change their colour, become disfigured, change their size or appear abnormal. Abnormal moles can cause a condition known as melanoma which could be life-threatening such as skin cancer.
Rosacea: Often categorized by abnormal and uncontrolled redness typically on the face. It has four categories including:
- Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea that appears as redness, visible blood vessels and flushing.
- Ocular rosacea which causes red, swollen and irritated eyes
- Papulopustular rosacea that causes redness, swelling and acne look-like breakouts
- Phymatous rosacea which causes skin bumpy and thick skin
Rosacea cannot be completely treated; however, symptoms can be controlled and managed.
Lupus: Lupus is a type of disorder in which the immune system of the body is attacked, causing severe inflammation and acute pain. These appear as red patches or ring-type formations on the skin and also tend to causes rashes on the nose and cheeks, as well as circular rash formations.
Psoriasis: A type of immune disorder which tends to cause red, scaly patches on the skin which itch very badly.
Eczema: A very common skin problem in which the patient experiences small, itchy patches on the face scalp, elbows neck, wrists, ankles or legs. These patches might change colour over time and can also become thick and bulky.
Vitiligo: A skin problem that occurs because of loss of pigmentation which causes patches of white skin. Patients affected with vitiligo often lose their hair colour; in some cases, the problem tends to spread while in others it is constrained to one part.
Acne: Acne is the most common type of skin problems that can occur in both men and women but are generally more common in women. They appear red and bumpy and could be of the following types:
- Pustules – ones with pus
- Papules – typically raised bumps
- Nodules – painful under skin lumps
- Cysts – large, pus-filled breakout
Hives: A condition that causes raised itchy welts due to allergy, stress, illness, or tight-fitted clothes.
Warts: Caused because of human papillomavirus (HPV), warts appear as raised bumps and are highly contagious.
Fungal Nail Infection: A condition where fungus tends to develop in and around the nail causing the edges to crumble and leaving a white-yellowish scaling surface.
Cold Sore: A painful blister full of fluid that causes burning and itchy sensations. This is caused because of the herpes virus and lasts up to two weeks.
Carbuncle: This skin condition occurs because of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that impacts the hair follicles and creates a red, itchy bump under the skin which is full of pus.
Cellulitis: An infection bacterial that starts from the deep layers of the skin and quickly spreads throughout the body causing tenderness, redness, swelling and pain.
Hemangiomas: This is an age-related condition which appears as large bumpy growths that initially are formed as tiny, red scratches or bumps on the face, neck or face. These tend to go away with age but in some cases, treatment may be required.
Measles: An airborne, contagious disease that causes a brownish rash, fever, watery eyes and tiny, red spots in the mouth.
Impetigo: Contagious disease that causes sores and blisters which are very itchy and tend to form around the mouth and face. Impetigo is highly contagious and leaves a crust when it bursts, imprinting a red mark.
Shingles: The re-attack of the same infection that causes chickenpox; it causes pain in the body followed by red blisters all over the skin.
Age Spots: Also known as liver spots, these are flat spots that appear on the surface of the skin and contain more pigment that the nearby areas.
These common dermatology diseases can be easily diagnosed and treated by a dermatologist.